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Scrubs are the shirts and trousers or gowns worn by surgeons, midwives and other operating room personnel when sterilizing themselves, or "scrubbing in", before surgery. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes known as Theatre Blues. They are designed to be simple with minimal places for contaminants to hide, easy to launder, and cheap to replace if damaged or stained irreparably. The wearing of scrubs has been extended outside of surgery in many hospitals. Originally issued as replacement clothing if street clothing was contaminated, scrubs are now worn by any hospital personnel in any clean environment. The spread of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has increased the use of scrubs but can give wearers a false sense of security that they are 'clean' when in fact are as easily contaminated as any other clothing.[1] They have also been mandated in some American prisons as a prison uniform. The television show Scrubs is partly named after this garment.

 

History of surgical attire

In contrast to the uniforms long required of nurses, surgeons did not wear any kind of specialized garments until well into the 20th century. Surgical procedures were conducted in an operating theater. The surgeon wore his own clothes, with perhaps a butcher's apron to protect his clothing from blood stains,[2] and he operated bare-handed with non-sterile instruments and supplies. (Gut and silk sutures were sold as open strands with reusable hand-threaded needles; packing gauze was made of sweepings from the floors of cotton mills.) In contrast to today's concept of surgery as a profession that emphasizes cleanliness and conscientiousness, up to the early 20th century the mark of a busy and successful surgeon was the profusion of blood and fluids on his clothes.[3] The importance of dress as a badge of one's class in society was paramount and the processes behind the transmission of infection were the subject of controversy within the profession.

With the "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918 and the growing medical interest in Lister's antiseptic theory, some surgeons began wearing cotton gauze masks in surgery; however, this was not to protect the patient from intra-operative infection, but to protect the surgeon from the patient's diseases. Around the same time, operating theatre staff began wearing heavy rubber gloves to protect their hands from the solutions used to clean the room and equipment, a practice surgeons grudgingly adopted.

By the 1940s, advances in surgical antisepsis (now called aseptic technique) and the science of wound infection led to the adoption of antiseptic drapes and gowns for operating room use. Instruments, supplies and dressings were routinely sterilized by exposure to either high-pressure steam or ethylene oxide.

Originally, operating room attire was white to emphasize cleanliness. However, the combination of bright operating lights and an all-white environment led to eye strain for the surgeon and staff. By the 1950s and 1960s, most hospitals had abandoned white operating room apparel in favor of various shades of green, which provided a high-contrast environment, reduced eye fatigue, and made bright red blood splashes less conspicuous.

 By the 1970s, surgical attire had largely reached its modern state — a short-sleeve V-necked shirt and drawstring pants or a short-sleeve calf-length dress, made of green cotton or cotton/polyester blend. Over this was worn a tie-back or bouffant-style cloth cap, a gauze or synthetic textile mask, a cloth or synthetic surgical gown, latex gloves, and supportive closed-toe shoes. This uniform was originally known as "surgical greens" because of its color, but came to be called "scrubs" because it was worn in a "scrubbed" environment.

In many operating rooms, it is forbidden to wear any exposed clothing, such as a t-shirt, beneath scrubs. As scrubs are designed to promote a clean environment, the wearing of outside clothing is thought to introduce unwanted pathogens.

 

Modern scrubs Today,

any medical uniform consisting of a short-sleeve shirt and pants is known as "scrubs". Scrubs may also include a waist-length long-sleeved jacket with no lapels and stockinette cuffs, known as a "warm-up jacket". Nearly all patient care personnel at hospitals in the United States wear some form of scrubs while on duty, as do some staffers in doctor, dental, and veterinary offices. Doctors in the United States may wear their own clothes with a white coat except for surgery. Support staff such as custodians and unit clerks also wear scrubs in some facilities. When the medic is not performing surgery the scrub is typically worn under a white coat.

 

 

Colors and patterns

Scrubs worn in surgery are almost always colored solid light green, light blue or a light green-blue shade, although some medical centers have switched to pink as a theft deterrent. Surgical scrubs are not owned by the wearer; due to concerns about home laundering and sterility issues, these scrubs are hospital-owned or hospital-leased through a commercial linen service. Non-surgical scrubs come in a wider variety of colors and patterns, ranging from official issue garments to custom made, whether by commercial uniform companies or by home-sewing using commercially available printed patterns. Some hospitals use scrub color to differentiate between patient care departments (i.e. Surgery, Labor and Delivery, Emergency, etc.) or between licensed patient care personnel (nurses, radiological technicians, respiratory and physical therapists, etc.), unlicensed assistive personnel, and non-patient care support staff (i.e. portering, dietary, unit clerks, etc.). Hospitals may also extend the practice to differentiate non-staff members/visitors. Custom-made printed scrub tops, featuring cartoon characters and cheerful prints, are common in pediatricians' offices, veterinary offices, dental clinics and children's hospitals, and prints for various holidays can be seen throughout the year. Some acute care facilities or larger hospitals also have relaxed rules regarding the wear of non-regulation scrubs in non-surgical units, and they are no longer just the classic v-neck scrub tops, but are now offered in many styles and patterns. Some scrubs are found in custom colors, e.g. a university hospital may have scrubs in the school's colors.

 

External wear

In the UK, all NHS hospital trusts have stringent clothing policies, and many of these specifically forbid wearing the iconic white coat for medical staff, owing to infection control concerns. This has meant that several hospitals around the UK have opted for scrubs for staff, especially in Accident and Emergency departments. As an item of casual dress, scrubs have gained acceptance outside of hospitals, for example, as pyjamas, workout clothing, or loungewear. They are sometimes used by backpackers in an effort to reduce weight load. Large stencils with the hospital's name or logo imprinted on them (commonly on pockets or at knees) are designed to prevent theft due to their increased popularity as casual wear.

 

Scrub caps

Scrub caps have graduated from being functional to also being a personalized accessory both in the operating room and outside. Before the antiseptic focus of the 1940s, hats were not considered essential to surgery. From the 1940s through the 1950s, as a hygienic focus swept the industry, hats became standard wear to help protect patients from contaminants in hair. Full-face hats were even designed for men with beards. These hats have been and continue to be distributed by group purchasing organizations (GPOs) who supply hospitals with most equipment. In the medical fashion 'revolution' of the seventies, more and more medical professionals began personalizing their scrubs by either sewing their own hats or buying premade hats made of eclectic fabric. Several styles were popular, including the 'bouffant' surgical cap, a utilitarian hairnet-like hat which typically comes in light blue, and the 'milkmaid', a bonnet-like wrap around hat. Bouffant surgical caps are perhaps the most widely used scrub hats in hospitals, and their usage is not limited to only nurses and surgeons: hospital patients are required to wear a bouffant cap when having surgery of any kind.

3/15/2015 2:44 PM By Gabe Oh Medical Uniforms,

When you think of a nurse, what image comes immediately to mind? A lady in a crisp white frock, with a starched white cloth apron in her hair, wearing white rubber shoes, white socks and white belt; the quintessential image of standard nursing uniform for nurses worldwide. However, the concept of nursing uniforms has changed now, with nurses wearing scrub sets and other flexible clothing. Still, it’s the everlasting image of the perfect nurse in her pristine, starched white uniform that remains with us. Wouldn’t you like to know more about how the white nursing uniform came about? What’s the history of the nursing uniform? We have put together a few facts gathered from the pages of history for you to read, in this article. Nursing Uniforms In The 19thCentury Nurses in this era wore servants’ uniforms, which consisted of a full black or printed gown with a white gathered or banded cap and a white apron. Nursing was still a street profession, though some nurses worked as private health caretakers for wealthy households. People started feeling a greater need for nurses around 1840 and nursing as a career started gaining more respect. Nurses were trained to some extent and made to work at city or local health board. these nurses did not wear servants’ uniforms; rather, they wore ladylike gowns with white aprons and caps to indicate that they were nurses. The starched white cap became synonymous with the nursing profession at about this time. Florence Nightingale paved the way for the ultimate recognition of nursing as a superior, compassionate profession. Nursing in the post Nightingale era turned into a more respectable job, with schooling systems and uniforms for nurses. Nurses had to wear a hat and band to distinguish themselves as nurses and display their nursing rank. Fresh nurse students would wear ribbon bands of pink, blue, or other pastel colors. Senior nurses and nursing teachers would wear black ribbon bands to indicate seniority Nursing Uniforms In The 20th Century In the 1900s, nursing uniforms started looking distinctly different from servant uniforms. Nursing uniforms came with pockets for keeping things on hand, a button down style top and pointy collars that differentiated them from other clothing. A white bib covered the nurse’s torso till the waist, where the bib’s folds were gathered and let down as an apron. The nurse’s dress was made of solid color fabric, and was tailored well. The tailoring, the style effects, the pockets and bib aprons ensured that the nurse would not be confused with a regular domestic servant. Nurses started wearing large hats in emulation of a nun’s starched high hat and veil. Emulating a nun’s uniform brought the nursing uniform a further semblance of borrowed respectability. Sometimes nuns used to operate as nurses and nurses opted to become nuns and serve in the nursing field. Therefore, many churches had trained nurses who would be asked to help during times of sickness and community diseases. The First World War brought about great changes in the nursing uniform. Design aspects and distinction took a back seat, and functionality became the most important feature in a nurse’s uniform. Nurses had to be fast and provide quick care for the many casualties they had to tend during the war. Sleeves were rolled up for easier movement, bulky aprons were taken off and shirts shortened for convenience. After the first world war that nurses realized they needed a uniform that combined functionality with femininity. The resultant look is the precedent of the white nurse’s uniform that we know as the standard nursing image now. By the 1950s, paper hats and simple folded hats replaced the large, elaborate crown-like caps that were worn by nurses during the first world war. The simple paper hats were more comfortable. The policy to use hats to denote seniority level was abolished, since the morality of nurses was affected by the discrimination. Dresses also evolved, since no one has the time to launder elaborately tailored clothing anymore. Dresses became less form fitting and were easy to wash, iron and wear. The nursing hat disappeared completely in the US by the late 1970s. male nurses started wearing nursing scrubs, which soon became the new fashion trend. Nursing uniforms started to resemble regular clothing and nurses appreciated the informal and casual feel of the clothes. Nursing Uniforms Today

3/15/2015 2:06 PM By Gabe Oh Medical Uniforms,
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